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Night work could damage your health (23rd January, 2014)

A new study suggests working shifts at night can be damaging to one's health. In particular, it increases the risk of several cancers, diabetes, mental illnesses, and various heart diseases. Researchers from the Sleep Research Centre at the U.K.'s University of Surrey discovered that many genes in the body needed to follow a regular 24-hour cycle, during which the body sleeps at night. If this cycle is broken, up to 1,500 genes could get damaged, eventually resulting in potentially life-threatening diseases. Professor Derk-Jan Dijk said: "The study has important implications because we now need to discover why these rhythms exist and think about the consequences of that."


 

The human body has around 24,000 genes. Many of these switch off if the body does not follow a regular sleeping pattern. This can cause parts of the immune system to become less efficient, making us more susceptible to illnesses. Study co-author Dr Simon Archer said: "Over 97 per cent of rhythmic genes become out-of-sync with mistimed sleep, which really explains why we feel so bad during jet lag or if we have to work irregular shifts." Dr Dijk said that despite the results of the research, it would be difficult for people to change their lifestyles. He explained it was difficult for society to function without people working night shifts, but said people needed to understand the dangers and "mitigate the impact".

Try Level 4 or Level 5 or see more news lessons or 2-page mini lessons.
Listen to this article in 5 different speeds.

Sources:
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2542780/Working-shifts-damage-1-500-genes-New-finding-explain-shift-work-associated-health-problems.html
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/10584723/Why-night-shift-and-jet-lag-make-you-feel-so-bad.html



 
 
 

WARM-UPS


 
 
 

1. WORKING AT NIGHT: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about working at night. Change partners often and share your findings.

2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, decide which of these topics or words from the article are most interesting and which are most boring.

 

study / night shifts / diabetes / sleep / genes / life-threatening / diseases / rhythms / human body / pattern / immune system / out-of-sync / jet lag / research / society

Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.

3. WORKING TIME: What are the problems with these working times? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

Problems

How to work better

3am – 6am

 

 

8am – 11am

 

 

Lunch time

 

 

4pm – 7pm

 

 

8pm – 11pm

 

 

12am – 3am

 

 

4. NIGHT SHIFT: Students A strongly believe working at night is better than working during the day; Students B strongly believe the opposite.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.

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5. SLEEP: Rank these and share your rankings with your partner. Put the ones that interrupt your sleep most at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • light

  • stress

  • noise outside

  • snoring

  • feeling too hot / cold

  • bad dreams / nightmares

  • noises in the house

  • thinking too much

6. SHIFT: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "shift". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.



 

BEFORE READING / LISTENING

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if  a-h  below are true (T) or false (F).

a.

Night shifts decrease the risk of getting diabetes.

T / F

b.

The research is from a British university.

T / F

c.

As many as 1,500 genes could be damaged by irregular sleep patterns.

T / F

d.

A professor found out why sleeping patterns that affect genes exist.

T / F

e.

The human body has about 240,000 genes.

T / F

f.

Irregular sleeping patterns can weaken the immune system.

T / F

g.

Irregular sleep affects 97% of all our genes that depend on rhythms.

T / F

h.

A doctor said it was easy for society to function without night workers.

T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

1.

study

a.

repercussions

2

damaging

b.

operate

3.

resulting in

c.

turn

4.

cycle

d.

harmful

5.

consequences

e.

prone

6.

switch

f.

report

7.

susceptible

g.

lessen

8.

despite

h.

rhythm

9.

function

i.

in spite of

10.

mitigate

j.

leading to

3. PHRASE MATCH:  (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

1.

it increases the

a.

broken

2

follow a regular

b.

of-sync

3.

this cycle is

c.

the consequences

4.

resulting in potentially life-

d.

system

5.

think about

e.

24-hour cycle

6.

the immune

f.

"mitigate the impact"

7.

making us more susceptible

g.

risk

8.

genes become out-

h.

lag

9.

jet

i.

threatening diseases

10.

understand the dangers and

j.

to illnesses



 

GAP FILL

A new study suggests working shifts at night can be damaging to one's health. In particular, it increases the (1) __________ of several cancers, diabetes, mental illnesses, and (2) __________ heart diseases. Researchers from the Sleep Research Centre at the U.K.'s University of Surrey discovered that many (3) __________ in the body needed to (4) __________ a regular 24-hour cycle, during which the body sleeps at night. If this cycle is (5) __________, up to 1,500 genes could get damaged, (6) __________ resulting in potentially life-threatening diseases. Professor Derk-Jan Dijk said: "The study has important (7) __________ because we now need to discover why these rhythms (8) __________ and think about the consequences of that."

 

 

eventually
follow
exist
risk
implications
broken
various
genes

The human body has around 24,000 genes. Many of these (9) __________ off if the body does not follow a regular sleeping (10) __________. This can cause parts of the immune system to become less (11) __________, making us more susceptible to illnesses.  Study co-author Dr Simon Archer said: "Over 97 per cent of (12) __________ genes become out-of-sync with mistimed sleep, which really explains why we feel so bad during (13) __________ lag or if we have to work irregular shifts." Dr Dijk said that despite the (14) __________ of the research, it would be difficult for people to change their lifestyles. He explained it was difficult for society to (15) __________ without people working night shifts, but said people needed to understand the dangers and "mitigate the (16) __________ ".

 

jet
efficient
function
switch
impact
pattern
results
rhythmic


 
 

LISTENING - Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)

it increases the risk of several cancers, diabetes, mental illnesses, and ______

 

a.  ferrous heart diseases
b.  various heart diseases
c.  furious heart diseases
d.  varicose heart diseases

2)

many genes in the body needed to follow a regular ______

 

a.  24-hour cycling
b.  24-hour cycled
c.  24-hour cycle
d.  24-hour cyclist

3)

If this cycle is broken, up to 1,500 genes could ______

 

a.  get damages
b.  get damaged
c.  get damaging
d.  get damage

4)

eventually resulting in potentially life-______

 

a.  threatening diseases
b.  threaten in diseases
c.  threatening in diseases
d.  threat and in diseases

5)

we now need to discover why these rhythms exist and think about ______

 

a.  the consequence
b.  the consequential
c.  the consequences
d.  the consequentially

6)

parts of the ______

 

a.  immunity system
b.  impunity system
c.  commune system
d.  immune system

7)

Over 97 per cent of rhythmic genes become ______

 

a.  out-of-sink
b.  outer sync
c.  outer sink
d.  out-of-sync

8)

why we feel so bad during jet lag or if we have to ______

 

a.  work in regular shifts
b.  work in irregular shifts
c.  work irregular shifts
d.  work irregularly shifts

9)

it would be difficult for people to change ______

 

a.  their lifestyle
b.  their lifestyles
c.  their life's styles
d.  their live styles

10)

people needed to understand the dangers and "______"

 

a.  mitigate the impact
b.  mitigate the impart
c.  mitigate the import
d.  mitigate the in pact

LISTENING – Listen and fill in the gaps

A new study suggests working (1) ___________________ damaging to one's health. In particular, it increases (2) ___________________ cancers, diabetes, mental illnesses, and various heart diseases. Researchers from the Sleep Research Centre at the U.K.'s University of Surrey discovered that many genes in the body needed (3) ___________________ 24-hour cycle, during which the body sleeps at night. If (4) ___________________, up to 1,500 genes could get damaged, eventually (5) ___________________ life-threatening diseases. Professor Derk-Jan Dijk said: "The study has important implications because we now need to discover why these rhythms exist and think about (6) ___________________ that."

The human body has around 24,000 genes. Many (7) ___________________ if the body does not follow a regular sleeping pattern. This can cause parts of (8) ___________________ become less efficient, making us more susceptible to illnesses.  Study co-author Dr Simon Archer said: "Over 97 per cent of rhythmic genes (9) ___________________ with mistimed sleep, which really explains why we (10) ___________________ jet lag or if we have to work irregular shifts." Dr Dijk said that despite the results of the research, it would be difficult for people to (11) ___________________. He explained it was difficult for society to function without people working night shifts, but said people needed to understand the dangers and " (12) ___________________ ".


 
 

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

1.

What suggested working shifts at night could damage one's health?

2.

In which country is the university that conducted the research?

3.

How many genes could get damaged?

4.

What could damaged genes potentially result in?

5.

What did a professor say we needed to discover?

6.

What do many genes do if they do not follow a regular sleeping pattern?

7.

What can become less efficient with irregular sleep?

8.

What else is mentioned that upsets our sleeping pattern?

9.

What did a doctor say was difficult for people to change?

10.

What did the doctor say people needed to understand?

MULTIPLE CHOICE - QUIZ

1.

What suggested working shifts at night could damage one's health?

6.

What do many genes do if they do not follow a regular sleeping pattern?

 

a) an Internet website
b) a documentary
c) a hospital
d) a report

 

a) merge with adjacent genes
b) double in size
c) switch off
d) work faster

2.

In which country is the university that conducted the research?

7.

What did the article say becomes less efficient with irregular sleep?

 

a) Ukraine
b) England
c) South Africa
d) the USA

 

a) the immune system
b) studying English
c) the rhythm of life
d) illness

3.

How many genes could get damaged?

8.

What else is mentioned that upsets our sleeping pattern?

 

a) all of them
b) 24,000
c) 14,520
d) as many as 1,500

 

a) alcohol
b) alarm clocks
c) jet lag
d) stress and anxiety

4.

What could damaged genes potentially result in?

9.

What did a doctor say was difficult for people to change?

 

a) compensation claims
b) the gene pool
c) life-threatening diseases
d) weight loss

 

a) results
b) their lifestyle
c) pajamas (USA) pyjamas (UK)
d) genes

5.

What did a professor say we needed to discover?

10.

What did the doctor say people needed to understand?

 

a) the missing gene
b) ourselves
c) the secret of life
d) why rhythms exist

 

a) the dangers of irregular sleep
b) how many genes we have
c) how to look after your genes
d) gene therapy

ROLE PLAY

Role  A – Midnight

You think midnight is the best time to work. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them things that are wrong with their times. Also, tell the others which is the worst of these (and why): lunch time, 6am or 6pm.

Role  B – Lunch time

You think lunch time is the best time to work. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them things that are wrong with their times. Also, tell the others which is the worst of these (and why): midnight, 6am or 6pm.

Role  C – 6am

You think 6am is the best time to work. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them things that are wrong with their times. Also, tell the others which is the worst of these (and why): lunch time, midnight or 6pm.

Role  D – 6pm

You think 6pm is the best time to work. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them things that are wrong with their times. Also, tell the others which is the worst of these (and why): lunch time, 6am or midnight.

AFTER READING / LISTENING

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words 'night' and 'work'.

night

 

work

 

 

  • Share your findings with your partners.
  • Make questions using the words you found.
  • Ask your partner / group your questions.

2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

  • Share your questions with other classmates / groups.
  • Ask your partner / group your questions.

3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

  • particular
  • various
  • discovered
  • up to
  • important
  • think
  • 24,000
  • parts
  • 97
  • despite
  • society
  • dangers

WORKING AT NIGHT SURVEY

Write five GOOD questions about working at night in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper.

When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

 

STUDENT 1

_____________

STUDENT 2

_____________

STUDENT 3

_____________

Q.1.

 

 

 

 

Q.2.

 

 

 

 

Q.3.

 

 

 

 

Q.4.

 

 

 

 

Q.5.

 

 

 

 

  • Now return to your original partner and share and talk about what you found out. Change partners often.
  • Make mini-presentations to other groups on your findings.

WORKING AT NIGHT DISCUSSION

STUDENT A's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

a)

What did you think when you read the headline?

b)

What springs to mind when you hear the word 'sleep'?

c)

What do you think of working at night?

d)

Have you ever worked or studied all night?

e)

Why do some people prefer working or studying at night?

f)

Are there any advantages to working at night?

g)

How would you describe your sleeping patterns?

h)

Are you a good sleeper?

i)

How are you if you do not get enough sleep?

j)

Do you ever think about the effects on health of a lack of sleep?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

STUDENT B's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

a)

Did you like reading this article? Why/not?

b)

Are you surprised at anything you read or heard in the article?

c)

Have you ever felt really bad because of a lack of sleep?

d)

Will you try to sleep more regularly from now?

e)

Have you ever had jet lag? What do you do for it?

f)

Would it be easy for you to change your lifestyle to work nights?

g)

What would change in society if no one worked nights?

h)

Should people get paid danger money for working nights?

i)

Would you accept a job that involved night shifts?

j)

What questions would you like to ask a sleep expert?

DISCUSSION (Write your own questions)

STUDENT A's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

1.

________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________

4.

________________________________________________________

5.

________________________________________________________

6.

________________________________________________________

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

STUDENT B's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

1.

________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________

4.

________________________________________________________

5.

________________________________________________________

6.

________________________________________________________

LANGUAGE - CLOZE

A new study suggests working shifts at night can be damaging to one's health. In particular, it increases the (1) ____ of several cancers, diabetes, mental illnesses, and (2) ____ heart diseases. Researchers from the Sleep Research Centre at the U.K.'s University of Surrey discovered that many genes in the body needed to (3) ____ a regular 24-hour cycle, (4) ____ which the body sleeps at night. If this cycle is broken, up to 1,500 genes could get damaged, eventually resulting (5) ____ potentially life-threatening diseases. Professor Derk-Jan Dijk said: "The study has important (6) ____ because we now need to discover why these rhythms exist and think about the consequences of that."

The human body has around 24,000 genes. Many of these switch off if the body does not follow a regular sleeping pattern. This can (7) ____ parts of the immune system to become less efficient, (8) ____ us more susceptible to illnesses.  Study co-author Dr Simon Archer said: "Over 97 per cent of rhythmic genes become out-of-(9) ____  with mistimed sleep, which really explains why we feel so bad during jet (10) ____ or if we have to work irregular shifts." Dr Dijk said that despite the results of the research, it would be difficult for people to change their lifestyles. He explained it was difficult for society to (11) ____ without people working night shifts, but said people needed to understand the dangers and "(12) ____ the impact".

Put the correct words from the table below in the above article.

1.

(a)

risky

(b)

risqué

(c)

risk

(d)

risked

2.

(a)

various

(b)

varied

(c)

variety

(d)

varies

3.

(a)

follow

(b)

pursue

(c)

chase

(d)

stalk

4.

(a)

during

(b)

while

(c)

within

(d)

through

5.

(a)

of

(b)

in

(c)

to

(d)

at

6.

(a)

inculcations

(b)

implantations

(c)

imperfections

(d)

implications

7.

(a)

lead

(b)

result

(c)

cause

(d)

create

8.

(a)

makes

(b)

made

(c)

make

(d)

making

9.

(a)

sync

(b)

site

(c)

sine

(d)

syntax

10.

(a)

gel

(b)

lag

(c)

arc

(d)

nix

11.

(a)

fiction

(b)

function

(c)

faction

(d)

friction

12.

(a)

migrate

(b)

mutilate

(c)

mitigate

(d)

ameliorate

SPELLING

Paragraph 1

1.

In lirptauarc

2.

riuasov heart diseases

3.

many nsege in the body

4.

potentially life-enairnettgh diseases

5.

The study has important olnpitsmiaci

6.

think about the uecseoqcnsen

Paragraph 2

7.

the mnmeui system

8.

become less cetefinif

9.

making us more secuiestbpl to illnesses

10.

work grruareli shifts

11.

difficult for yiceots

12.

tieamgti the impact

PUT THE TEXT BACK TOGETHER

Number these lines in the correct order.

(    )

shifts." Dr Dijk said that despite the results of the research, it would be difficult for people to change their

(    )

sync with mistimed sleep, which really explains why we feel so bad during jet lag or if we have to work irregular

(    )

threatening diseases. Professor Derk-Jan Dijk said: "The study has important implications because we now need to

1  )

A new study suggests working shifts at night can be damaging to one's health. In

(    )

diseases. Researchers from the Sleep Research Centre at the U.K.'s University of Surrey discovered that many

(    )

genes in the body needed to follow a regular 24-hour cycle, during which the body sleeps at night. If this cycle is

(    )

lifestyles. He explained it was difficult for society to function without people

(    )

particular, it increases the risk of several cancers, diabetes, mental illnesses, and various heart

(    )

working night shifts, but said people needed to understand the dangers and "mitigate the impact".

(    )

broken, up to 1,500 genes could get damaged, eventually resulting in potentially life-

(    )

to illnesses.  Study co-author Dr Simon Archer said: "Over 97 per cent of rhythmic genes become out-of-

(    )

The human body has around 24,000 genes. Many of these switch off if the body does not follow a regular sleeping

(    )

pattern. This can cause parts of the immune system to become less efficient, making us more susceptible

(    )

discover why these rhythms exist and think about the consequences of that."

PUT THE WORDS IN THE RIGHT ORDER

1.

health    Working    shifts    at    night   can   be   damaging   to   one's.   

2.

it    increases    the    risk    of    several    cancers    In    particular    ,.   

3.

to    needed    body    The    cycle    hour    -    24    regular   a   follow.   

4.

in    Resulting    diseases    threatening    -    life    potentially.   

5.

these    need    why    exist    now    discover    rhythms    We    to.   

6.

of    system    less    Parts    immune    become    the    to    efficient.   

7.

we    feel    so    bad    during    jet    lag    Which    explains    why.   

8.

for    people    to    change    their    lifestyles   It   would   be   difficult.   

9.

function    Difficult    without    for    people    society    working    to.   

10.

mitigate    and    dangers    the    Understand    impact    the.   

CIRCLE THE CORRECT WORD (20 PAIRS)

A new study suggests / suggesting working shifts at night can be damaging to one's healthy / health. In particular, it increases the risk of several cancers, diabetes, mental illnesses, and various / variety heart diseases. Researchers from the Sleep Research Centre at the U.K.'s University of Surrey discovered that many / much genes in the body needed to follow a regular / regularly 24-hour cycle, during when / which the body sleeps at night. If this cycle is breaking / broken, up to 1,500 genes could get damaged, eventually resulting in / at potentially life-threatening diseases. Professor Derk-Jan Dijk said: "The study has important complications / implications because we now need to discover why these rhythms exist and think about the consequences / consequential of that."

The human body has around 24,000 genes. Many of these switched / switch off if the body does not follow a regularly / regular sleeping pattern. This can cause parts of the immunity / immune system to become less efficient / proficient, making us more susceptible / suspicious to illnesses.  Study co-author Dr Simon Archer said: "Over 97 per cent of rhythmic genes become out-of-sync with mistimed / mischief sleep, which really explains why we feel so bad during jet / air lag or if we have to work irregular shifts." Dr Dijk said that despite the results of the research, it would be difficulty / difficult for people to change their styles / lifestyles. He explained it was difficult for society to function without people working night shifts, but said people needed to understand the dangers and "mitigate / migrate the impact".

Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

INSERT THE VOWELS (a, e, i, o, u)

_ n_w st_dy s_gg_sts w_rk_ng sh_fts _t n_ght c_n b_ d_m_g_ng t_ _n_'s h__lth. _n p_rt_c_l_r, _t _ncr__s_s th_ r_sk _f s_v_r_l c_nc_rs, d__b_t_s, m_nt_l _lln_ss_s, _nd v_r___s h__rt d_s__s_s. R_s__rch_rs fr_m th_ Sl__p R_s__rch C_ntr_ _t th_ _.K.'s _n_v_rs_ty _f S_rr_y d_sc_v_r_d th_t m_ny g_n_s _n th_ b_dy n__d_d t_ f_ll_w _ r_g_l_r 24-h__r cycl_, d_r_ng wh_ch th_ b_dy sl__ps _t n_ght. _f th_s cycl_ _s br_k_n, _p t_ 1,500 g_n_s c__ld g_t d_m_g_d, _v_nt__lly r_s_lt_ng _n p_t_nt__lly l_f_-thr__t_n_ng d_s__s_s. Pr_f_ss_r D_rk-J_n D_jk s__d: "Th_ st_dy h_s _mp_rt_nt _mpl_c_t__ns b_c__s_ w_ n_w n__d t_ d_sc_v_r why th_s_ rhythms _x_st _nd th_nk _b__t th_ c_ns_q__nc_s _f th_t."

Th_ h_m_n b_dy h_s _r__nd 24,000 g_n_s. M_ny _f th_s_ sw_tch _ff _f th_ b_dy d__s n_t f_ll_w _ r_g_l_r sl__p_ng p_tt_rn. Th_s c_n c__s_ p_rts _f th_ _mm_n_ syst_m t_ b_c_m_ l_ss _ff_c__nt, m_k_ng _s m_r_ s_sc_pt_bl_ t_ _lln_ss_s.  St_dy c_-__th_r Dr S_m_n _rch_r s__d: "_v_r 97 p_r c_nt _f rhythm_c g_n_s b_c_m_ __t-_f-sync w_th m_st_m_d sl__p, wh_ch r__lly _xpl__ns why w_ f__l s_ b_d d_r_ng j_t l_g _r _f w_ h_v_ t_ w_rk _rr_g_l_r sh_fts." Dr D_jk s__d th_t d_sp_t_ th_ r_s_lts _f th_ r_s__rch, _t w__ld b_ d_ff_c_lt f_r p__pl_ t_ ch_ng_ th__r l_f_styl_s. H_ _xpl__n_d _t w_s d_ff_c_lt f_r s_c__ty t_ f_nct__n w_th__t p__pl_ w_rk_ng n_ght sh_fts, b_t s__d p__pl_ n__d_d t_ _nd_rst_nd th_ d_ng_rs _nd "m_t_g_t_ th_ _mp_ct".

PUNCTUATE THE TEXT AND ADD CAPITALS

a new study suggests working shifts at night can be damaging to one's health in particular it increases the risk of several cancers diabetes mental illnesses and various heart diseases researchers from the sleep research centre at the uk's university of surrey discovered that many genes in the body needed to follow a regular 24-hour cycle during which the body sleeps at night if this cycle is broken up to 1500 genes could get damaged eventually resulting in potentially life-threatening diseases professor derk-jan dijk said "the study has important implications because we now need to discover why these rhythms exist and think about the consequences of that"

the human body has around 24000 genes many of these switch off if the body does not follow a regular sleeping pattern this can cause parts of the immune system to become less efficient making us more susceptible to illnesses  study co-author dr simon archer said "over 97 per cent of rhythmic genes become out-of-sync with mistimed sleep which really explains why we feel so bad during jet lag or if we have to work irregular shifts" dr dijk said that despite the results of the research it would be difficult for people to change their lifestyles he explained it was difficult for society to function without people working night shifts but said people needed to understand the dangers and "mitigate the impact"

PUT A SLASH ( / ) WHERE THE SPACES ARE

Anewstudysuggestsworkingshiftsatnightcanbedamagingtoone'shealth.Inp
articular,itincreasestheriskofseveralcancers,diabetes,mentalillnesses,andv
ariousheartdiseases.ResearchersfromtheSleepResearchCentreattheU.K.'s
UniversityofSurreydiscoveredthatmanygenesinthebodyneededtofolloware
gular24-hourcycle,duringwhichthebodysleepsatnight.Ifthiscycleisbroke
n,upto1,500genescouldgetdamaged,eventuallyresultinginpotentiallylife-
threateningdiseases.ProfessorDerk-JanDijksaid:"Thestudyhasimportant
implicationsbecausewenowneedtodiscoverwhytheserhythmsexistandthink
abouttheconsequencesofthat."Thehumanbodyhasaround24,000genes.Ma
nyoftheseswitchoffifthebodydoesnotfollowaregularsleepingpattern.Thiscan
causepartsoftheimmunesystemtobecomelessefficient,makingusmoresusce
ptibletoillnesses.Studyco-authorDrSimonArchersaid:"Over97percentofrh
ythmicgenesbecomeout-of-syncwithmistimedsleep,whichreallyexplains
whywefeelsobadduringjetlagorifwehavetoworkirregularshifts."DrDijksaidt
hatdespitetheresultsoftheresearch,itwouldbedifficultforpeopletochangethe
irlifestyles.Heexplaineditwasdifficultforsocietytofunctionwithoutpeoplewor
kingnightshifts,butsaidpeopleneededtounderstandthedangersand"mitigate
theimpact".

FREE WRITING

Write about working at night for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner's paper.

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ACADEMIC WRITING

Governments should stop people working night shifts. Discuss.

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HOMEWORK

1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.

2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about working at night. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.

3. WORKING AT NIGHT: Make a poster about working at night. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?

4. NIGHT SHIFT: Write a magazine article about working the night shift. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against it.

Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).

5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.

6. LETTER: Write a letter to a doctor. Ask him/her three questions about working at night. Give him/her three of your opinions on it. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

ANSWERS

TRUE / FALSE (p.4)

a

F

b

T

c

T

d

F

e

F

f

T

g

T

h

F

SYNONYM MATCH (p.4)

1.

study

a.

report

2

damaging

b.

harmful

3.

resulting in

c.

leading to

4.

cycle

d.

rhythm

5.

consequences

e.

repercussions

6.

switch

f.

turn

7.

susceptible

g.

prone

8.

despite

h.

in spite of

9.

function

i.

operate

10.

mitigate

j.

lessen

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS (p.8)

1.

A new study

2.

The U.K.

3.

Up to 1,500

4.

Life-threatening diseases

5.

Why (gene) rhythms exist

6.

Switch off

7.

The immune system

8.

Jet lag

9.

Their lifestyle

10.

The dangers

MULTIPLE CHOICE - QUIZ (p.9)

1.

d

2.

b

3.

d

4.

c

5.

d

6.

c

7.

a

8.

c

9.

b

10.

a

ALL OTHER EXERCISES

Please check for yourself by looking at the Article on page 2.
(It's good for your English ;-)

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